What is a Virtual Machine and How Does It Work

A virtual machine, abbreviated as VM, is similar to any other physical device, such as a desktop, smartphone, or server. It has a CPU, memory, and discs for storing your files, as well as the ability to link to the internet if necessary.

VMs are also thought of as virtual machines or software-defined computers inside physical servers, existing only as code. In contrast, the pieces that make up your machine (called hardware) are physical and tangible.

How do Virtual Machines Work?

Virtualization is the practice of developing a software-based or “virtual” version of a computer with dedicated CPU, memory, and storage that is “borrowed” from a physical host computer (such as your personal computer) and a remote server (such as a server in a cloud provider’s datacenter).

A virtual machine is a computer file, commonly referred to as an image, that mimics the behavior of a real computer. It can operate as a separate computing environment in a window, sometimes to run a particular operating system, or even serve as the user’s entire computer interface, as is usual on many people’s work computers.

Since the virtual machine is partitioned from the rest of the system, the program cannot interact with the primary operating system on the host computer.

What Are Virtual Machines Used For?  

Virtual machines (VMs) allow a company to run an operating system in an app window on a desktop that acts like a completely different device. Virtual machines (VMs) can be used to meet various computing power requirements, run software that requires another operating system, or test applications in a safe, sandboxed environment.

Server virtualization, which allows IT teams to consolidate computing resources and increase performance, has traditionally used virtual machines. Digital machines can also perform too dangerous tasks to act in a host environment, such as accessing virus-infected data or checking operating systems.

Since the virtual machine is isolated from the rest of the system, the virtual machine’s program cannot interfere with the host computer.

Here are some examples of how virtual machines are used:

  • Creating and installing cloud-based applications.
  • Trying out a new operating system (OS), which could include beta versions.
  • Creating a modern ecosystem to make running dev-test scenarios easier and faster for developers.
  • Creating a backup of the current operating system.
  • Installing an older OS allows you to access virus-infected data or run an outdated program.
  • Running applications or apps on operating systems for which they were not designed.

Advantages Of Virtual Machines 

Digital machines, though they operate like actual computers with their own operating programs, have the advantage of being entirely independent of one another and the physical host machine. A hypervisor, or virtual machine manager, is a piece of software that allows you to run multiple operating systems on various virtual machines at the same time.

It will enable you to run Linux virtual machines on a Windows OS, such as running an older Windows version on a more recent Windows OS.

Since virtual machines are self-contained, they are highly portable. A VM on one hypervisor can be moved to another hypervisor on a different computer almost instantly.

Digital machines offer several advantages due to their simplicity and portability, including:

  • Cost-cutting: You can significantly reduce the physical infrastructure footprint by running multiple virtual worlds from a single piece of infrastructure. It upgrades the bottom line by reducing the number of servers you need to run and saving money on maintenance and energy.
  • Scalability: By adding more physical or virtual servers to spread the workload through several VMs, you can quickly scale your applications. As a consequence, the apps’ availability and efficiency will improve.
  • Benefits from protection: Since virtual machines can run multiple operating systems, running a guest operating system on a VM allows you to run potentially dangerous apps while still protecting your host OS. VMs also improve security forensics and are often used to safely research computer viruses by isolating them from their host computer.
  • Reduced Downtime: Since virtual machines are so compact and quick to switch from one hypervisor to another on a different computer, they make excellent backups if the host goes down suddenly.
  • Agility and quickness: It’s much easier and faster to spin up a VM than it is to set up an entirely new environment for your developers. Virtualization speeds up the process of running development scenarios.

Disadvantages Of Virtual Machines 

Although virtual machines have several advantages over physical devices, they also have several drawbacks:

If infrastructure requirements are not met, running multiple virtual machines on one physical machine will result in inconsistent results.

Virtual computers are inefficient and sluggish as compared to a full-fledged device. It balances the benefits and drawbacks of both physical and virtual infrastructure. Most businesses use a hybrid of the two.

Two Basic Kinds Of Virtual Machines

Process virtual machines and virtual device machines are the two types of virtual machines available to users:

By masking the details of the underlying hardware or operating system, a process virtual machine allows a single process to operate as an application on a host machine, offering a platform-independent programming environment.

The Java Virtual Machine is an example of a process VM since it allows any operating system to run Java applications as if they were native to that system.

It can replace a physical computer; a device virtual machine is entirely virtualized. A device platform allows several virtual machines to share a host computer’s physical resources while each is running its copy of the operating system.

This virtualization process relies on a hypervisor, which can run on bare hardware or top of an operating system, such as VMware ESXi.

What Are Different Types Of Virtual Machines?  

  1. Virtual Machines for Windows

Most hypervisors support virtual machines running the Windows operating system as a guest. The Hyper-V hypervisor from Microsoft is included with the Windows operating system.

It generates a parent partition that contains both itself and the primary Windows OS, each of which has privileged access to the hardware once installed. Other operating systems, such as Windows visitors, are installed in child partitions that communicate with the hardware via the parent partition.

  1. Virtual machines for Mac

Apple’s macOS operating system can only run on Apple hardware. Its end-user license agreement prevents users from running it on non-Apple hardware as a virtual machine. Type 2 hypervisors can build VMs with macOS guests on Mac hardware.

  1. Virtual Machines for iOS

Since Apple tightly manages its iOS OS and does not allow it to run on anything other than iOS machines, it is currently impossible to run it in a virtual machine.

The iPhone simulator that occurs with the Xcode integrated development environment is the closest to an iOS virtual machine. It simulates the entire iPhone device in software.

  1. Virtual machines for Python

The Python virtual machine, like the JVM, does not run on a hypervisor and does not have a guest operating system. It is a program that allows Python programs to run on a wide range of CPUs.

Python, like Java, converts the programs into bytecode, stored in a file, and ready to run. When the program is run, the Python virtual machine (VM) converts the bytecode into machine code for fast execution.

  1. Virtual machines based on Linux

Linux is a standard guest operating system used in many virtual machines. It’s also a familiar host OS for virtual machines, with its hypervisor called a kernel-based virtual machine (KVM). Since 2007, the KVM has been part of the standard Linux kernel. Red Hat created the KVM, even though it is an open-source project.

  1. Virtual machines from VMware

VMware was a pioneer in virtualization software and is now a well-known supplier of Type 1 and Type 2 hypervisors and virtual machine software to business customers.

  1. Virtual Machines for Java

The Java platform is an environment for running programs written in Java. Java promised that it could be written once and run anywhere. It meant that any Java program could run on any Java platform-enabled device. The Java framework requires a Java virtual machine to accomplish this (JVM).

The JVM converts this bytecode to machine code, the host computer’s lowest-level language. Depends on the machine code that the processor expects, the JVM in one computing platform’s Java platform can generate a different set of machine code instructions than the JVM in another.

  1. Virtual Machines for Android

Google’s open-source Android OS is widely used on mobile devices and wired home devices such as home entertainment systems. The Android OS is only compatible with the ARM processor architecture used in these units, but it can be run on PCs by Android gamers or software developers.

Since PCs use a different x86 processor architecture and a hardware virtualization hypervisor only transfers instructions between the VM and the CPU, this is an issue. For processors with varying sets of instructions, it does not translate them. There are several projects underway to resolve this problem.

Other Forms Of Virtualization

The performance of virtual machines in server virtualization led to their use in other areas such as storage, network, and desktop computers. There’s a good chance that if a piece of hardware is being used in the data center, the idea of virtualizing it is being considered.

Companies have looked at network-as-a-service options, and network functions virtualization (NFV), which replaces specialized network appliances with commodity servers to allow more versatile and scalable networks.

It differs from software-defined networking, which distinguishes the network control plane from the forwarding plane to allow for more automatic resource allocation and policy-based network resources planning.

Digital network functions, a third technology, are software-based applications that can be run in an NFV setting and include routing, firewalling, load balancing, WAN acceleration, and cryptography.

What Are the Benefits of Using Virtual Machines in the Workplace?

Virtualization, or virtual machines within a company, is not a new concept. Many small and medium businesses recognize the numerous advantages that virtualization can provide, particularly when combined with a hosted cloud service provider.

  • Reduced Hardware Costs: Many small business servers, in our experience, only use 40-60% of their hardware resources, so instead of purchasing a new server, the company can create a virtual server.
  • Energy Savings and a Small Footprint: Virtualization reduces the amount of office space required to retain and develop your IT capabilities while also freeing up desk space for your expanding company to support more employees.
  • Increasing the efficiency of IT operations: You can install, run, and administer several operating systems from a single physical server when partitioned into several virtual machines.
  • Faster Server Deployment and Provisioning: Spend less time in your company and more time taking it forward. Database installation, dependency resolution, securing and resource optimization, and installing the required software and services are time-consuming steps to deploy a new server.
  • Migration and portability: With little effort, you can quickly transfer VMs between virtual worlds and from one physical server to another. VMs are hardware-independent since they are separated from one another and have their virtual hardware.
  • Data security and disaster recovery have been improved: By replicating the servers off-site in the cloud, virtualization simplifies disaster recovery. You don’t need the same physical servers offsite to facilitate a secondary recovery site because VMs are independent of the underlying hardware.

Cloud Computing And Virtual Machines

Virtualization is a technology that seeks to control hardware, and cloud computing is a service that emerges from that manipulation. Virtualization is required for cloud computing.

Virtualization is a critical component of cloud computing and aids in delivering the benefits of the technology. Cloud computing is the on-demand distribution of pooled computing services, applications, or data over the internet.

Recognizing a significant portion of the misunderstanding stems from virtualization and cloud computing recognizing various services. Virtualization products can be used in the cloud to provide computing services, and they are often used.

In contrast to virtualization, a true cloud offers self-managed capabilities, elasticity, automated management, scalability, and pay-as-you-go service.

Difference Between Bare Metal Servers And Virtual Machines

It’s less about contrasting capabilities and more about understanding what you need and when you need it when choosing a virtual machine over a real one, also known as a bare-metal server.

Raw hardware, strength, and isolation are all critical factors in bare metal servers. They’re single-tenant physical servers with no hypervisor cycles (virtualization software), and they’re solely dedicated to one customer – you.

Data-intensive applications and regulatory enforcement requirements, for example, are usually better suited for bare metal servers – mainly when deployed over long periods.

ERP, CRM, E-commerce, financial services, SCM, and frameworks are only a few of the workloads that bare metal servers are well suited for.

So, when will you use a hypervisor to build a virtual machine on bare metal hardware? When the workloads necessitate the most significant amount of versatility and scalability.

Virtual machines are suitable for transferring data from one virtual machine to another, resizing data sets, and splitting complex workloads because they seamlessly improve server capacity and efficiency.

Containers Vs. Virtual Machines

Over the last decade, operating system (OS) virtualization has gained popularity to ensure that software runs reliably and well when transferred from one server environment to another. On the other hand, Containers enable these isolated systems to run on a single server or host OS.

Containers run on top of a physical server’s host operating system, such as Linux or Windows. The host OS kernel, as well as the binaries and libraries, are shared by each container.

Components that are shared are read-only. Therefore, containers are extremely “small,” requiring just a few megabytes and seconds to start, compared to gigabytes and minutes for a VM.

Containers often lower management costs. Since they all use the same operating system, only one needs to be cared for and fed regarding bug fixes, updates, etc.

This definition is close to hypervisor hosts, which have fewer management points but a significantly larger fault domain. Containers, in short, are smaller and more compact than virtual machines.

Virtualization And Hypervisors

A hypervisor is software at the heart of a virtual machine. In the cloud space, a hypervisor isolates a single virtual machine. A hypervisor is much more than just a divider for your virtual machines.

Your hypervisor can emulate the hardware components of a standard operating system and offer an impenetrable virtual boundary between multiple OSes. Virtualized versions of hardware resources such as CPU, I/O, memory, and others will be available in your hypervisor.

Hypervisors have the advantage of not requiring any special hardware to work. I’m not only referring to the fact that you don’t need more hardware to run more VMs — your base console will run multiple VMs.

Hypervisors have the advantage of not requiring any special hardware to work. I’m not only referring to the fact that you don’t need more hardware to run more VMs; your base console will run a hypervisor without needing VM-specific hardware.

As a result, virtual machines live up to their name as versatile solutions for multi-OS systems. A virtual environment can contain several hypervisors for an ever-increasing number of virtual machines since the hypervisor can separate each simulated device from the others.

Hypervisors come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

Virtualization can be accomplished using two distinct forms of hypervisors.

  • Type-1

A bare-metal hypervisor is a category-one hypervisor. The hypervisor schedules VM services directly to the hardware. A type 1 hypervisor, for example, is KVM. KVM was integrated into the Linux kernel in 2007, so you still have it if you’re running a recent Linux version.

  • Type-2

A hypervisor of type 2 is mounted. The host operating system schedules VM services, which are then executed on the hardware. Form 2 hypervisors include VMware Workstation and Oracle VirtualBox.

Full Virtualization Vs. Paravirtualization

  • Paravirtualization 

Paravirtualization is a form of CPU virtualization that employs hyper-calls for operations simultaneously to handle instructions. The guest OS is not entirely isolated from the virtualization layer and hardware in paravirtualization, but the virtual machine partly separates it. Examples include VMware and Xen.

  • Full Virtualization

In the year 1966, IBM implemented full virtualization. It is the first server virtualization software solution that employs binary translation and direct approach techniques. The virtual machine fully isolates the guest OS from the virtualization layer and hardware in full virtualization. Total virtualization is demonstrated by Microsoft and Parallels systems.


Virtualization can never be seen as a quick fix for a particular issue. It is a concept and a technology that can be used in a wide variety of applications. By reading through this article, you will learn the basics of virtual machines’ working, types, and critical differences between other methods.