User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is the final stage of the testing before any software product is shipped to stakeholders. User Acceptance Testing is called beta testing, too. This article contains a complete guide on User Acceptance Testing (UAT).
What is User Acceptance Testing?
User Acceptance Testing (UAT), as its name suggests, is testing done of any particular software product for user approval. Let us see what is the definition of the user in the context of User Acceptance Testing. A user is a person who desires to have a particular product for himself or herself according to the requirements. So, the definition of user acceptance testing can be derived as testing or verifying a particular software by the user. A user can verify whether the software product works according to his or her requirements.
User Acceptance Testing is commonly done by the stakeholder and is performed at the final stage of the testing. It is executed after the function, integration, and system testing. Additionally, this testing is referred to as end-user testing, operational acceptance testing (OAT), field acceptance testing, and acceptance test-driven development (ATDD).
When it is performed?
User Acceptance Testing is usually executed at the last phase before a particular product is ready to come into the market. It is carried out to ensure that the product is working well and meeting the criteria stated in the contract before its development. Usually, it is performed after the product undergoes system testing. As this testing is one of the last stages of the product, clients need to take into account all the perspectives of the product.
Who is responsible for performing UAT?
The purpose of the user acceptance testing is to verify whether the software product is reliable for market use or whether it satisfies all criteria and can be used as a perfect solution. This testing is overall carried out by the owner of the product.
The user does not verify whether the software crashes, it meets his or her requirements, spelling eros, or other defects. It is all done before in the system testing. It majorly focuses on how the software product works. The software product should work properly with business functionalities.
Need for User Acceptance Testing
There are certain businesses that have faced a big issue in their software products before releasing them in the market. Having issues in the software after stepping into the market may result in a great business loss. Any defect in the product may turn into the loss of customers’ trust and faith, which is not very beneficial for the business to run. Even if the defects occurring in the product are repairable, it requires a lot of time as well as money.
So, to avoid the problem and issues occurring in the software product after its release in the market, there is a need for user acceptance testing. This testing ensures that the software product is well-grounded and works well as a solution for a particular problem. User Acceptance Testing for a particular product is very essential to avoid business loss in case of any defects or bugs. It also saves time and money for the owner of that particular product.
User Acceptance Testing Checklist
User Acceptance Testing Checklist includes a complete guide about how to execute the user acceptance testing and the stages involved in this testing.
- The initial checklist involves starting User Acceptance Testing.
- Planning the consumer allowing research after that.
- Checking Concept Consumer Acceptance.
- Checking User Acceptance Execution.
- Decisions on activation
- Post Test Behavior for User Approval.
How to Perform User Acceptance Testing?
To perform User Acceptance Testing, there are certain steps involved. These steps are briefly explained below:
- Examination of Business Needs: The primary and most important step in UAT includes defining and evaluating the business needs and testing situations. Users should define scenarios for the test from various documents, like business use cases, flow diagrams, System Requirements Specification (SRS), etc.
- Developing the UAT Plan: The next step includes the development of the UAT plan. This plan developed by the user will be a strategy that ensures that the software product satisfies the business needs. This plan can incorporate entry and exit criteria, test cases, and timelines of testing.
- Identify Test Scenarios and Test Cases: Testers need to identify high-level business testing situations. Based on the testing situations, these testers need to create clear and clean test cases. The test cases developed should cover all the test scenarios of business.
- Use Live Data: Using live data in the user acceptance testing process is very beneficial. This will help users to see how the software product works with the data available in the current situation.
- Run the Test Cases: The developed test cases based on high-level business testing situations should be executed and the result should be noted. However, the appearance of a bug or defect at this stage is not good. All bugs or defects are detected at the earlier stages. But, if they appear, first testers need to fix it and then re-test the bug. After re-testing, note down the result.
- Ensure the business requirements met successfully: After noting down the results of each test case, testers must ensure that all business requirements are covered and the software is working well in real-time.
How to Execute User Acceptance Testing Effectively?
As the user acceptance testing is one of the most crucial stages of testing, users must execute this testing very carefully and keenly. To perform this testing, users need to take into account certain parameters or factors. These parameters are listed below:
- Setting clear expectations: The first factor to consider in the user acceptance testing is to set clear expectations about the possible outcome of the testing. The user or owner of the product and testing team member should know the reason for conducting the test.
- Conduct UAT in the early stage: This user acceptance testing is performed just before the product is about to deliver to the customer. This approach is followed in the traditional product development model, waterfall model, as well as, in the modern development models, the Agile model. It should be conducted in the early stages of product development to discover bugs and defects.
- Find the proper testers: Another major factor to be considered while carrying out user acceptance testing it to choose relevant testers. Users must choose participants that have often worked earlier with this type of testing.
- Make test assignments: In the user acceptance testing, the product is tested whether it works well with real-life scenarios and day to day operations. So, users must create a list of tasks and tests to be made on the product to ensure that it works well in every situation. But, the test assignment created should be based on high-level business conditions, higher quality of the tests, and should contain concise and clear steps.
Tools for User Acceptance Testing
To carry out user acceptance testing, several tools are available in the market. The following are some of the testing tools listed below:
- Watir: Watir is a short form of Web Application Testing in Ruby. It is one of the most popular tools used for executing user acceptance testing efficiently. The best part is it is an open-source tool. It is a cross-platform tool that supports all major operating systems. It incorporates three several small projects. Out of them, three are majorly used. They are Watir-Classic, Watir-web driver, and Watirspec. It is written in Ruby language and is licensed under the MIT license.
- FitNesse: FitNesse is yet another popular tool used for user acceptance testing. It offers a provision of writing test cases on Wiki web pages and executing them from Wiki. Users can create new Wiki pages or edit the existing Wiki pages and list down their test cases in it. This tool was specially developed for Agile development methodology and User Acceptance Testing.
User Acceptance Testing Template
The User Acceptance Testing template is quite different from the testing templates used for the quality assurance team. The User Acceptance template may have the following information in it:
- Test Case ID: The Test Case ID should be unique for each test case. It is the number that uniquely identifies each test case from the list of test cases.
- Functional Area: The functional area is another parameter in the template. Test cases are combined according to their functional area.
- Business Requirement ID: Like the Test Case ID, a business requirement id is also a unique number that identifies each requirement of the business.
- User Role: The user of the product is responsible to execute the user acceptance testing. So, it is very crucial to identify the role of the user from the stated business needs.
- Test Steps: Having organized test steps will make the testing process effective and simple. Test steps include all the sequential actions to be carried out during the execution.
- Expected Result: This module of the template contains the expected outcome of each test case or system behaviour on executing each test case.
- Actual Result: This column contains actual results after the execution of each test case. If the expected result and the actual result are the same, users need to enter “Same as Expected” in this column.
- Test Status: Test Status implies whether a particular test case passes or fails. If it passes, the status is passed and if fails, users need to raise an issue to the development team.
- Business Impact: This column includes significant information and it is used to set the priority of tasks.
- Comments: This module contains comments about the test cases.
User Acceptance Testing Best Practices
- Know the users of the software: It is important to know who is using the software. What are the needs of the customers regarding a particular software? What is their expectation from the software? If all these data is available, user acceptance testing becomes easier to execute.
- Prepare the outlining of the testing in advance: To carry out user acceptance testing, it is essential to develop a detailed outline of how to execute the process. Prior planning of user acceptance testing can assist testers to cover all test cases and execute them efficiently.
- Well-structured User Acceptance Management Testing: As the user acceptance testing is one of the last phases of testing before it gets delivered in the market, the software product must work well as per the customers’ needs. The management system used for this type of testing should be well-structured and organized.
- Develop test situations: Testers should use high-level business test situations and create test cases out of them. But, these test scenarios must be based on business needs.
- Define acceptance standards: The acceptance standard implies the rules and standards based on which the software product is decided whether it is passed or failed. So, to determine whether the product is suitable for market use or not, basic acceptance standards are required.
System Testing Vs User Acceptance Testing
System Testing and User Acceptance Testing are two distinct terms. System Testing is performed before User Acceptance Testing. The following table will help you to understand the difference between system testing and user acceptance testing.
|System Testing||User Acceptance Testing|
|System Testing is executed to check the overall functionality of a particular software product.||User Acceptance Testing is performed to verify whether the software product works well with business needs.|
|This testing is commonly performed only by testers and developers.||This testing is carried out by testers, stakeholders, as well as customers of the software product.|
|System testing can be functional as well as non-functional testing.||User Acceptance Testing is only functional testing.|
|In this type of testing, the performance of the overall product is tested.||In this type of testing, whether the product is suitable as a solution for business is tested.|
|System Testing and Integration Testing together make System Testing.||Alpha Testing and Beta Testing together form User Acceptance Testing.|
|In System Testing, the defects and bugs in the product are repaired and fixed.||In User Acceptance testing, if the defects or bugs are found, it is considered as the failure of the product.|
After looking over all the above elements of user acceptance testing, we understand that this testing is very essential for any product before it is delivered in the market. This testing checks whether a particular product works effectively with business requirements and verifies whether the software can be served as an effective business solution.