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Top 100 System Architecture Interview Questions and Answers

Top 100 System Architecture Interview Questions and Answers

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1. What is System Architecture?

Answer: System Architecture refers to the high-level structure of a software system. It defines the components or modules, their relationships, and how they work together to fulfill the system’s requirements. It also involves decisions about platforms, technologies, and design patterns.

Reference: System Architecture – Wikipedia


2. Explain the difference between microservices and monolithic architecture.

Answer:
Microservices: This architecture divides the application into small, loosely coupled services, each responsible for a specific business function. They communicate through APIs.

Monolithic: In this architecture, the entire application is developed as a single unit. All components tightly depend on each other.

Reference: Microservices vs Monolithic – NGINX


3. Provide an example of a design pattern used in system architecture.

Answer:
Singleton Pattern ensures a class has only one instance and provides a global point of access. This is useful for components like database connections.

class Singleton:
    _instance = None
    def __new__(cls):
        if not cls._instance:
            cls._instance = super().__new__(cls)
        return cls._instance

# Usage
s1 = Singleton()
s2 = Singleton()
print(s1 is s2)  # Output: True

Reference: Singleton Pattern – SourceMaking


4. What is a layered architecture and why is it important?

Answer:
Layered architecture separates the concerns of a system into distinct layers, like presentation, business logic, and data access. This promotes modularity, maintainability, and scalability.

Reference: Layered Architecture – Tutorialspoint


5. Explain the concept of load balancing in system architecture.

Answer:
Load balancing distributes incoming network traffic across multiple servers. This ensures no single server becomes overloaded, improving performance and reliability.

Reference: Load Balancing – AWS


6. Provide an example of a RESTful API endpoint.

Answer:

GET /api/users/123

This endpoint retrieves user with ID 123.

Reference: RESTful API Design – YouTube


7. What is the role of a reverse proxy in system architecture?

Answer:
A reverse proxy sits in front of servers and handles requests from clients. It distributes requests to the appropriate servers and can provide caching, SSL termination, and additional security.

Reference: Reverse Proxy – NGINX


8. Explain the CAP theorem and its implications in distributed systems.

Answer:
CAP theorem states that a distributed system can’t simultaneously guarantee Consistency, Availability, and Partition tolerance. It’s important to consider trade-offs when designing distributed systems.

Reference: CAP Theorem – MongoDB


9. Provide an example of a stateless communication protocol.

Answer:
HTTP is a stateless protocol. Each request from a client to a server must contain all the information needed to understand and fulfill the request.

Reference: HTTP – Mozilla


10. What is a design principle that helps in achieving loose coupling?

Answer:
The Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP) encourages high-level modules to depend on abstractions rather than specific implementations. This reduces coupling and promotes flexibility.

Reference: Dependency Inversion Principle – DEV Community


11. Explain the concept of scalability in system architecture.

Answer:
Scalability refers to a system’s ability to handle a growing amount of work. It can be achieved through horizontal scaling (adding more machines) or vertical scaling (upgrading existing machines).

Reference: Scalability – AWS


12. Provide an example of a distributed database.

Answer:
Apache Cassandra is a distributed NoSQL database designed for high availability, scalability, and fault tolerance. It’s used by companies like Facebook, Netflix, and Instagram.

Reference: Apache Cassandra – Official Site


13. What is the purpose of a content delivery network (CDN) in system architecture?

Answer:
A CDN is a distributed network of servers that deliver web content to users based on their geographical location. It reduces latency and offloads traffic from the origin server.

Reference: CDN – Cloudflare


14. Explain the concept of a message queue in system architecture.

Answer:
A message queue is a communication mechanism that allows different parts of a system to communicate asynchronously by sending and receiving messages. It decouples producers and consumers.

Reference: Message Queues – RabbitMQ


15. Provide an example of a design pattern used for database access.

Answer:
Repository Pattern separates the logic that retrieves data from a database from the business logic in the application. It provides a clean API for data access.

class UserRepository:
    def get_user_by_id(self, user_id):
        # Database query to get user by ID
        pass

    def save_user(self, user):
        # Database query to save user
        pass

Reference: Repository Pattern – Dev.to


16. What is the role of a cache in system architecture?

Answer:
A cache stores frequently accessed data in a location closer to the requester. This reduces the need to fetch data from the original source, improving performance.

Reference: Caching – Redis


17. Explain the concept of event-driven architecture.

Answer:
Event-driven architecture is a design pattern where the production, detection, and consumption of events guide the control flow of a system. It’s commonly used in systems that respond to real-time events.

Reference: Event-Driven Architecture – AWS


18. Provide an example of a design pattern used for concurrency control.

Answer:
Mutex (Mutual Exclusion) is a synchronization primitive that prevents multiple threads from accessing shared resources simultaneously.

import threading

mutex = threading.Lock()

def critical_section():
    with mutex:
        # Critical section code
        pass

Reference: Mutex – GeeksforGeeks


19. What is the role of a proxy server in system architecture?

Answer:
A proxy server acts as an intermediary between clients and servers. It can provide functions like caching, security, and load balancing, enhancing the performance and security of a system.

Reference: Proxy Server – NGINX


20. Explain the concept of a stateful vs. stateless protocol.

Answer:
A stateful protocol maintains the state of a client’s interactions with a server across multiple requests. A stateless protocol treats each request as an independent transaction.

Reference: Stateful vs Stateless – Javatpoint


21. Provide an example of a design pattern used for real-time processing.

Answer:
Observer Pattern defines a one-to-many dependency between objects so that when one object changes state, all its dependents are notified and updated automatically.

class Observer:
    def update(self):
        pass

class Subject:
    def __init__(self):
        self._observers = []

    def attach(self, observer):
        self._observers.append(observer)

    def notify(self):
        for observer in self._observers:
            observer.update()

Reference: Observer Pattern – SourceMaking


22. Explain the concept of idempotency in system architecture.

Answer:
An operation is idempotent if applying it multiple times has the same result as applying it once. This property is crucial for ensuring that operations can be retried without causing unintended side effects.

Reference: Idempotence – AWS


23. What is the purpose of a service mesh in system architecture?

Answer:
A service mesh is a dedicated infrastructure layer for handling service-to-service communication. It handles functions like load balancing, service discovery, and security between microservices.

Reference: Service Mesh – Istio


24. Provide an example of a design pattern used for concurrent programming.

Answer:
Producer-Consumer Pattern involves two classes, a producer and a consumer, sharing a common, fixed-size buffer as a queue. It allows for safe data exchange between threads.

from threading import Thread, Lock
import queue

class SharedBuffer:
    def __init__(self):
        self.buffer = queue.Queue(maxsize=5)
        self.lock = Lock()

    def add_item(self, item):
        with self.lock:
            self.buffer.put(item)

    def get_item(self):
        with self.lock:
            return self.buffer.get()

buffer = SharedBuffer()

def producer():
    for i in range(10):
        buffer.add_item(i)

def consumer():
    for _ in range(10):
        item = buffer.get_item()
        print(f"Consumed: {item}")

# Usage
producer_thread = Thread(target=producer)
consumer_thread = Thread(target=consumer)

producer_thread.start()
consumer_thread.start()

producer_thread.join()
consumer_thread.join()

Reference: Producer-Consumer Pattern – GeeksforGeeks


25. Explain the concept of eventual consistency in distributed systems.

Answer:
Eventual consistency is a consistency model used in distributed systems. It guarantees that, given enough time, all replicas of a piece of data will converge to the same value.

Reference: Eventual Consistency – AWS


26. Provide an example of a design pattern used for handling errors.

Answer:
Chain of Responsibility Pattern allows multiple handlers to process a request. Each handler decides whether to process the request or pass it to the next handler.

class Handler:
    def set_next(self, handler):
        self.next_handler = handler

    def handle(self, request):
        pass

class ConcreteHandler1(Handler):
    def handle(self, request):
        if condition:
            return response
        else:
            return self.next_handler.handle(request)

# Usage
handler1 = ConcreteHandler1()
handler2 = ConcreteHandler2()
handler1.set_next(handler2)
result = handler1.handle(request)

Reference: Chain of Responsibility Pattern – Refactoring Guru


27. What is the purpose of a circuit breaker pattern in system architecture?

Answer:
The Circuit Breaker Pattern is used to prevent a service from repeatedly attempting an operation that is likely to fail. It provides fault tolerance and graceful degradation.

Reference: Circuit Breaker Pattern – Microsoft


28. Explain the concept of sharding in system architecture.

Answer:
Sharding involves breaking a large database into smaller, more manageable pieces called shards. Each shard is hosted on a separate database server to distribute the load.

Reference: Database Sharding – YouTube


29. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing object creation.

Answer:
Factory Method Pattern defines an interface for creating an object, but lets subclasses alter the type of objects that will be created.

class Creator:
    def factory_method(self):
        pass

class ConcreteCreator1(Creator):
    def factory_method(self):
        return Product1()

class ConcreteCreator2(Creator):
    def factory_method(self):
        return Product2()

# Usage
creator = ConcreteCreator1()
product = creator.factory_method()

Reference: Factory Method Pattern – Gang of Four Design Patterns


30. Explain the concept of a three-tier architecture.

Answer:
Three-tier architecture separates a software application into three interconnected components: presentation (user interface), business logic (processing), and data storage (database).

Reference: Three-Tier Architecture – Tutorialspoint


31. Provide an example of a design pattern used for handling authentication.

Answer:
Strategy Pattern allows selecting an algorithm at runtime. In authentication, it can be used to choose between different authentication methods (e.g., password, OAuth, JWT).

class AuthenticationStrategy:
    def authenticate(self):
        pass

class PasswordAuthentication(AuthenticationStrategy):
    def authenticate(self, username, password):
        # Authenticate with username and password
        pass

class OAuthAuthentication(AuthenticationStrategy):
    def authenticate(self, token):
        # Authenticate with OAuth token
        pass

# Usage
password_auth = PasswordAuthentication()
oauth_auth = OAuthAuthentication()

# Set strategy dynamically
context = Context(password_auth)
context.authenticate(username, password)

Reference: Strategy Pattern – Refactoring Guru


32. Explain the concept of a virtual machine in system architecture.

Answer:
A virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system. It allows multiple operating systems to run on a single physical machine, providing isolation and resource management.

Reference: Virtual Machine – VMware


33. What is the purpose of a container orchestration platform in system architecture?

Answer:
Container orchestration platforms (e.g., Kubernetes, Docker Swarm) automate the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications, ensuring high availability and fault tolerance.

Reference: Kubernetes – Official Site


34. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing relationships between objects.

Answer:
Composite Pattern lets clients treat individual objects and compositions of objects uniformly. It’s used when clients should not be aware of the difference between individual and composite objects.

class Component:
    def operation(self):
        pass

class Leaf(Component):
    def operation(self):
        pass

class Composite(Component):
    def __init__(self):
        self.children = []

    def add(self, component):
        self.children.append(component)

    def remove(self, component):
        self.children.remove(component)

    def operation(self):
        for component in self.children:
            component.operation()

Reference: Composite Pattern – GeeksforGeeks


35. Explain the concept of a distributed cache in system architecture.

Answer:
A distributed cache is a cache that spans multiple servers. It allows for caching data across a network of machines, reducing the load on the primary data source.

Reference: Distributed Caching – Redis


36. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing behavior changes.

Answer:
State Pattern allows an object to alter its behavior when its internal state changes. This is achieved by representing states as objects and delegating behavior to them.

class State:
    def handle(self):
        pass

class ConcreteStateA(State):
    def handle(self):
        pass

class ConcreteStateB(State):
    def handle(self):
        pass

class Context:
    def __init__(self):
        self.state = None

    def set_state(self, state):
        self.state = state

    def request(self):
        self.state.handle()

Reference: State Pattern – SourceMaking


37. What is the role of a configuration management tool in system architecture?

Answer:
A configuration management tool automates the process of managing and deploying software configurations. It ensures that systems maintain their desired state over time.

Reference: Configuration Management – Puppet


38. Provide an example of a design pattern used for optimizing memory usage.

Answer:
Flyweight Pattern minimizes memory usage or computational expenses by sharing as much as possible with related objects. It’s useful for systems with a large number of similar objects.

class Flyweight:
    def operation(self, extrinsic_state):
        pass

class ConcreteFlyweight(Flyweight):
    def operation(self, extrinsic_state):
        pass

class UnsharedConcreteFlyweight(Flyweight):
    def operation(self, extrinsic_state):
        pass

Reference: Flyweight Pattern – TutorialsPoint


39. Explain the concept of a message broker in system architecture.

Answer:
A message broker acts as an intermediary for communication between software applications. It facilitates the exchange of data, ensuring that messages are delivered reliably.

Reference: Message Brokers – RabbitMQ


40. Provide an example of a design pattern used for handling user interfaces.

Answer:
MVC (Model-View-Controller) separates concerns in user interfaces. Models represent data, Views display information, and Controllers handle user input.

Reference: MVC Pattern – TutorialsPoint


41. What is the purpose of a reverse proxy in system architecture?

Answer:
A reverse proxy acts as an intermediary between clients and servers. It receives requests on behalf of servers, processes them, and then returns the appropriate response to clients.

Reference: Reverse Proxy – NGINX


42. Provide an example of a design pattern used for decoupling components.

Answer:
Mediator Pattern defines an object that centralizes communication between components. This reduces dependencies between them, promoting decoupling.

class Mediator:
    def notify(self, sender, event):
        pass

class Component1:
    def __init__(self, mediator):
        self.mediator = mediator

    def do_something(self):
        self.mediator.notify(self, 'event')

class Component2:
    def __init__(self, mediator):
        self.mediator = mediator

    def do_something(self):
        self.mediator.notify(self, 'event')

Reference: Mediator Pattern – Dofactory


43. Explain the concept of a microservices architecture.

Answer:
Microservices is an architectural style that structures an application as a collection of loosely coupled services. Each service corresponds to a specific business capability and communicates via APIs.

Reference: Microservices Architecture – AWS


44. What is the purpose of a load balancer in system architecture?

Answer:
A load balancer distributes incoming network traffic across multiple servers to ensure no single server is overwhelmed. It improves the availability and reliability of applications.

Reference: Load Balancing – DigitalOcean


45. Provide an example of a design pattern used for optimizing database access.

Answer:
Data Access Object (DAO) Pattern provides an abstract interface to some type of database or other persistence mechanism. It separates the application’s business logic from the data access logic.

class DAO:
    def get_data(self, id):
        pass

class ConcreteDAO(DAO):
    def get_data(self, id):
        # Retrieve data from database
        pass

Reference: Data Access Object Pattern – JournalDev


46. Explain the concept of a content delivery network (CDN) in system architecture.

Answer:
A CDN is a geographically distributed network of proxy servers and their data centers. It helps distribute the load of delivering content and reduces latency.

Reference: Content Delivery Network – Cloudflare


47. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing data flow.

Answer:
Pipe and Filter Pattern processes a stream of data in a series of steps. Each step, represented by a filter, performs a specific operation on the data.

class Filter:
    def process(self, data):
        pass

class ConcreteFilter(Filter):
    def process(self, data):
        # Process data
        pass

Reference: Pipe and Filter Pattern – Wikipedia


48. What is the role of a service registry in system architecture?

Answer:
A service registry is a directory for holding references to services. It allows services to dynamically discover and communicate with each other.

Reference: Service Registry – Netflix OSS


49. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing object lifecycle.

Answer:
Singleton Pattern ensures a class has only one instance and provides a global point of access to it.

class Singleton:
    _instance = None

    def __new__(cls):
        if cls._instance is None:
            cls._instance = super().__new__(cls)
        return cls._instance

Reference: Singleton Pattern – Refactoring Guru


50. Explain the concept of a stateless architecture in system design.

Answer:
In a stateless architecture, each request from a client contains all the information needed to fulfill the request. The server does not store any state information about the client.

Reference: Stateless vs Stateful – Baeldung


51. What is the purpose of a circuit breaker pattern in system architecture?

Answer:
The Circuit Breaker Pattern is used to prevent a service from continually trying to execute an operation that is likely to fail. It temporarily replaces the failing operation with a fallback.

Reference: Circuit Breaker Pattern – Microsoft


52. Provide an example of a design pattern used for handling asynchronous tasks.

Answer:
Observer Pattern defines a dependency between objects so that when one object changes state, all its dependents are notified.

class Observer:
    def update(self, subject):
        pass

class Subject:
    def __init__(self):
        self.observers = []

    def attach(self, observer):
        self.observers.append(observer)

    def notify(self):
        for observer in self.observers:
            observer.update(self)

Reference: Observer Pattern – Gang of Four


53. Explain the concept of a message queue in system architecture.

Answer:
A message queue is a form of asynchronous communication used in distributed systems. It allows components to communicate by sending messages to a queue, which can be processed later.

Reference: Message Queue – RabbitMQ


54. What is the purpose of a service mesh in system architecture?

Answer:
A service mesh is a dedicated infrastructure layer for handling service-to-service communication. It provides features like load balancing, circuit breaking, and authentication.

Reference: Service Mesh – Istio


55. Provide an example of a design pattern used for handling user input.

Answer:
Chain of Responsibility Pattern passes a request along a chain of handlers. Each handler decides whether to process the request or pass it to the next handler.

class Handler:
    def set_successor(self, successor):
        pass

    def handle_request(self, request):
        pass

class ConcreteHandler1(Handler):
    def handle_request(self, request):
        pass

class ConcreteHandler2(Handler):
    def handle_request(self, request):
        pass

Reference: Chain of Responsibility Pattern – SourceMaking


56. Explain the concept of a data lake in system architecture.

Answer:
A data lake is a centralized repository that allows businesses to store all their structured and unstructured data at any scale. It enables analytics, machine learning, and more.

Reference: Data Lake – AWS


57. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing resource sharing.

Answer:
Flyweight Pattern minimizes memory usage by sharing as much as possible. Useful when a large number of similar objects need to be created.

class Flyweight:
    def operation(self, extrinsic_state):
        pass

class ConcreteFlyweight(Flyweight):
    def operation(self, extrinsic_state):
        pass

class UnsharedConcreteFlyweight(Flyweight):
    def operation(self, extrinsic_state):
        pass

Reference: Flyweight Pattern – TutorialsPoint


58. What is the role of a configuration manager in system architecture?

Answer:
A configuration manager is responsible for managing and maintaining the configuration items (CIs) of a system. This includes planning, identifying, controlling, and verifying CIs.

Reference: Configuration Management – BMC


59. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing data storage.

Answer:
Repository Pattern mediates between the domain and data mapping layers. It isolates the application from the details of the database.

class Repository:
    def get_data(self, id):
        pass

class ConcreteRepository(Repository):
    def get_data(self, id):
        # Retrieve data from database
        pass

Reference: Repository Pattern – Dofactory


60. Explain the concept of a serverless architecture in system design.

Answer:
Serverless architecture allows developers to build and run applications without managing servers. The cloud provider handles infrastructure, scaling, and maintenance.

Reference: Serverless Computing – AWS


61. What is the purpose of a caching mechanism in system architecture?

Answer:
Caching stores frequently accessed data in a temporary storage area. It improves system performance by reducing the need to fetch data from a primary storage location.

Reference: Caching – Mozilla


62. Provide an example of a design pattern used for handling concurrent access to resources.

Answer:
Semaphore Pattern controls access to a common resource by multiple processes. It allows a specified number of processes to access the resource simultaneously.

class Semaphore:
    def __init__(self, permits):
        pass

    def acquire(self):
        pass

    def release(self):
        pass

Reference: Semaphore Pattern – GeeksforGeeks


63. Explain the concept of a containerization in system architecture.

Answer:
Containerization involves packaging an application and its dependencies together, allowing it to run consistently across various computing environments.

Reference: Containerization – Docker


64. What is the role of a system architect in the software development process?

Answer:
A system architect is responsible for designing the overall structure of a software system. This includes making high-level design choices, defining key technical components, and ensuring that the system meets business requirements.

Reference: System Architect Role – TechTarget


65. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing authentication.

Answer:
Decorator Pattern adds new functionalities to an object dynamically. It can be used to add authentication logic around a base object.

class AuthenticationDecorator:
    def __init__(self, component):
        pass

    def operation(self):
        pass

Reference: Decorator Pattern – Gang of Four


66. Explain the concept of a monolithic architecture in system design.

Answer:
In a monolithic architecture, the entire application is built as a single unit. All components, such as UI, database, and logic, are tightly integrated.

Reference: Monolithic vs Microservices – Microsoft


67. What is the purpose of a disaster recovery plan in system architecture?

Answer:
A disaster recovery plan outlines procedures for restoring operations after a catastrophic event. It ensures data integrity and system availability in such scenarios.

Reference: Disaster Recovery Plan – IBM


68. Provide an example of a design pattern used for handling business rules.

Answer:
Specification Pattern represents a business rule that can be combined with other business rules using boolean operators.

class Specification:
    def is_satisfied_by(self, candidate):
        pass

Reference: Specification Pattern – SourceMaking


69. Explain the concept of a synchronous vs asynchronous communication in system design.

Answer:
Synchronous communication requires both the sender and receiver to be available at the same time. Asynchronous communication allows the sender to proceed without waiting for an immediate response.

Reference: Synchronous vs Asynchronous – Javatpoint


70. What is the role of a capacity planner in system architecture?

Answer:
A capacity planner is responsible for ensuring that a system has enough resources to meet current and future demands. They analyze usage patterns and plan for scalability.

Reference: Capacity Planning – Techopedia


71. What is the purpose of a service-oriented architecture (SOA) in system design?

Answer:
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an architectural style that structures software as a collection of loosely coupled services. It promotes reusability and interoperability.

Reference: Service-Oriented Architecture – IBM


72. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing complex workflows.

Answer:
State Pattern allows an object to alter its behavior when its internal state changes. This can be used to manage complex workflows.

class State:
    def handle(self):
        pass

class ConcreteState1(State):
    def handle(self):
        pass

class ConcreteState2(State):
    def handle(self):
        pass

Reference: State Pattern – Gang of Four


73. Explain the concept of a virtual private cloud (VPC) in system architecture.

Answer:
A Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) is a virtual network dedicated to a single organization within a cloud provider’s infrastructure. It allows for greater control over network configuration.

Reference: Virtual Private Cloud – AWS


74. What is the role of a data architect in the software development process?

Answer:
A data architect is responsible for designing, creating, and managing an organization’s data architecture. They ensure data availability, integrity, and security.

Reference: Data Architect Role – TechTarget


75. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing communication between components.

Answer:
Command Pattern turns a request into a stand-alone object. This can be used to parameterize clients with queues, requests, and operations.

class Command:
    def execute(self):
        pass

class ConcreteCommand(Command):
    def execute(self):
        pass

Reference: Command Pattern – Dofactory


76. Explain the concept of a data warehouse in system architecture.

Answer:
A data warehouse is a central repository for storing large volumes of data from various sources. It’s used for reporting and data analysis.

Reference: Data Warehouse – Oracle


77. What is the purpose of a network security architect in system design?

Answer:
A network security architect is responsible for designing and implementing security measures to protect an organization’s computer systems and networks.

Reference: Network Security Architect Role – Techopedia


78. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing version control.

Answer:
Memento Pattern provides the ability to restore an object to its previous state. This can be used for version control.

class Memento:
    def get_state(self):
        pass

class Originator:
    def set_state(self, state):
        pass

    def create_memento(self):
        pass

    def restore_memento(self, memento):
        pass

Reference: Memento Pattern – SourceMaking


79. Explain the concept of a distributed system in system architecture.

Answer:
A distributed system is a collection of independent computers that work together to achieve a common goal. They communicate over a network.

Reference: Distributed Systems – Carnegie Mellon University


80. What is the role of a data modeler in the software development process?

Answer:
A data modeler is responsible for creating visual representations of an organization’s data and the relationships between different data elements.

Reference: Data Modeler Role – Indeed


81. What is the purpose of a load balancer in system architecture?

Answer:
A load balancer distributes incoming network traffic across multiple servers to ensure that no single server is overwhelmed. It enhances performance and redundancy.

Reference: Load Balancing – NGINX


82. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing data transformations.

Answer:
Adapter Pattern allows the interface of an existing class to be used as another interface. It’s useful for data transformation between incompatible interfaces.

class Target:
    def request(self):
        pass

class Adapter(Target):
    def request(self):
        pass

Reference: Adapter Pattern – TutorialsPoint


83. Explain the concept of a microservices architecture in system design.

Answer:
Microservices architecture breaks down a software application into small, independently deployable services. Each service focuses on a specific function.

Reference: Microservices – Martin Fowler


84. What is the role of a DevOps engineer in system development?

Answer:
A DevOps engineer bridges the gap between development and operations teams. They automate processes, implement continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD), and ensure smooth software delivery.

Reference: DevOps Engineer Role – DevOps Institute


85. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing dependencies.

Answer:
Dependency Injection Pattern allows the injection of dependencies into a class, making it more flexible and easier to test.

class Service:
    def __init__(self, dependency):
        pass

Reference: Dependency Injection – Martin Fowler


86. Explain the concept of a content delivery network (CDN) in system architecture.

Answer:
A CDN is a network of distributed servers that deliver web content, such as images and videos, to users based on their geographic location. It improves content delivery speed and reduces server load.

Reference: Content Delivery Network – Akamai


87. What is the role of a security architect in system design?

Answer:
A security architect is responsible for designing and implementing security measures to protect a system from vulnerabilities and threats.

Reference: Security Architect Role – CyberDegrees


88. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing object creation.

Answer:
Factory Method Pattern defines an interface for creating an object but allows subclasses to alter the type of objects that will be created.

class Creator:
    def factory_method(self):
        pass

class ConcreteCreator(Creator):
    def factory_method(self):
        pass

Reference: Factory Method Pattern – Dofactory


89. Explain the concept of a reverse proxy in system architecture.

Answer:
A reverse proxy is a server that sits between client devices and a web server. It handles client requests and forwards them to the appropriate backend server. It’s often used for load balancing and security.

Reference: Reverse Proxy – NGINX


90. What is the role of a system administrator in system management?

Answer:
A system administrator is responsible for configuring, managing, and maintaining the hardware and software components of a computer system. They ensure the system’s availability and performance.

Reference: System Administrator Role – Techopedia


91. What is the purpose of a message broker in system architecture?

Answer:
A message broker acts as an intermediary that facilitates communication between different software applications. It ensures reliable message delivery and decouples producers from consumers.

Reference: Message Broker – IBM


92. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing data retrieval.

Answer:
Repository Pattern separates the logic that retrieves data from a database from the business logic. It improves testability and maintainability.

class Repository:
    def get_data(self):
        pass

Reference: Repository Pattern – DevIQ


93. Explain the concept of a data lake in system architecture.

Answer:
A data lake is a storage repository that holds raw data in its native format. It allows for the storage of vast amounts of structured and unstructured data.

Reference: Data Lake – AWS


94. What is the role of a cloud architect in system design?

Answer:
A cloud architect is responsible for designing and overseeing an organization’s cloud computing strategy. They ensure cloud services align with business goals.

Reference: Cloud Architect Role – TechTarget


95. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing transactional behavior.

Answer:
Unit of Work Pattern maintains a list of objects affected by a business transaction and coordinates the writing out of changes.

class UnitOfWork:
    def register_new(self, obj):
        pass

    def register_dirty(self, obj):
        pass

    def commit(self):
        pass

Reference: Unit of Work Pattern – Martin Fowler


96. Explain the concept of a serverless architecture in system design.

Answer:
Serverless architecture allows developers to build and run applications without managing the underlying infrastructure. It scales dynamically based on demand.

Reference: Serverless Computing – AWS


97. What is the purpose of a content management system (CMS) in system architecture?

Answer:
A CMS enables the creation, management, and modification of digital content. It provides tools for content authoring, editing, and publishing.

Reference: Content Management System – Techopedia


98. Provide an example of a design pattern used for managing access control.

Answer:
Proxy Pattern controls access to an object. It can be used for access control by providing a surrogate or placeholder for another object.

class Proxy:
    def request(self):
        pass

Reference: Proxy Pattern – SourceMaking


99. Explain the concept of a data pipeline in system architecture.

Answer:
A data pipeline is a set of processes that move data from one place to another. It involves data ingestion, transformation, and storage.

Reference: Data Pipeline – AWS


100. What is the role of a technical lead in the software development process?

Answer:
A technical lead is responsible for overseeing the technical aspects of a project. They guide the development team, make technical decisions, and ensure the project aligns with the overall architecture.

Reference: Technical Lead Role – The Balance Careers