Top 100 Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers in 2021

Manual testing can be defined as a software testing technique where the test cases are executed manually without using any automated tools. Here, all the test cases will be executed manually by the tester according to the end user’s perspective. It will ensure whether the application is working, as per the requirement document or not.

If you are looking for any Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers, then you are on the right page. Make sure you go through all the questions that are mentioned in this post.

Table of Contents

Top Manual Testing Interview Questions

1. Define Software Testing?

Software testing can be defined as the technique of verifying systems with the purpose of identifying errors, missing, or gaps requirement versus the actual requirement. Software testing is categorized into two types:

  1. Functional testing
  2. Non-functional testing

2. What is Exploratory Testing?

Exploratory Testing can be defined as a type of software testing where we don’t create the Test cases in advance, but testers check the system on the fly. The testers will note down ideas about what to test before the test execution. The main focus of exploratory testing is more on the testing as a “thinking” activity.

3. Why do we require Software Testing?

Software testing is necessary because of the following:

  1. To check software adaptability
  2. To identify errors
  3. To gain customer confidence
  4. To avoid extra costs
  5. To accelerate software development
  6. To avoid risks
  7. To optimize business

4. When should we end the testing process?

  1. Testing Deadlines.
  2. Completion of a Functional and code coverage to a specific point
  3. Completion of test case execution.
  4. When the bug rate goes below a certain level, and there are no high priority bugs identified.
  5. Management decision

5. Define Use Case Testing?

Use case Testing

Use case testing can be defined as a mechanism that will help to identify test cases that will cover the entire system, on a  from start to finish, transaction by transaction basis. It is also a description of the specific use of the system by the user. It is mainly used in developing tests or systems for some acceptable levels.

6. Can you list the two main categories of software testing?

Software testing is  broadly categorized into two areas:

Manual Testing – This can be defined as the oldest type of software testing where the testers have to manually execute the test cases without using any of the test automation tools. It means that the software application is tested manually by the QA testers.

Automation Testing – This can be defined as the technique of using assistance tools, scripts, and software to perform the test cases by repeating the pre-defined actions. Test Automation usually focuses on replacing manual human activity with some systems or devices that will enhance efficiency.

7. Define quality control? Are both quality control and quality Assurance?

In Software Testing, Quality Control can be defined as a systematic group of processes that are used to ensure the quality of the software products or services. The purpose of the quality control process is to ensure that the software product has to meets the actual requirements by reviewing and testing its functional and non-functional requirements.

Quality Assurance usually relates to how the process is performed or how a product is made, and quality control is defined as the inspection aspect of quality management.

8. When does static testing start, and what does it cover?

Static Testing can be defined as a software testing technique used to check defects in software applications without executing code. Static testing is performed to avoid errors at the early stage of development because it is easy to identify the errors and solve them.

9. What is the Requirement Traceability Matrix? 

Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) in Software Testing is a document that will map and trace user requirements with the test cases. It will capture all the requirements that are proposed by the client and requirement traceability in a single document that is delivered at the conclusion of a Software development life cycle.

10. List the different types of Manual testing?

  1. Integration Testing
  2. Black Box Testing
  3. White Box Testing
  4. Unit Testing
  5. System Testing
  6. Acceptance Testing

 Manual Testing Interview Questions

11. Define Black-box testing?

Black-box testing can be defined as a software testing technique that will examine the functionality of the application without peering into its internal workings or structures. This method of test is applied virtually to each and every level of software testing: unit, integration, system, and acceptance.

12. Define Equivalence Partitioning testing? 

Equivalence partitioning or equivalence class partitioning can be defined as a software testing mechanism that will divide the input data of a given software unit into the partitions of equivalent data from which test cases are derived. In principle, test cases are designed in such a way to cover each partition at least once.

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13. Define a Test plan, and what does it include?

A test plan in Software Testing includes a product description, scope, schedule, procedures, objectives, testing strategies, testing resources, and deliverables. Test plans are very important in the development of software because they will outline what testing requires to ensure that the software is up to standard and it is working exactly how it should.

A test plan includes:

  1. Testing objectives
  2. Test scope
  3. Testing the frame
  4. Environment
  5. Reason for testing
  6. Criteria for entrance and exit
  7. Deliverables
  8. Risk factors

14. Define White box testing and list its types?

White box testing is a testing mechanism that will examine the program structure, and it derives the test data from the program code or logic. The other names of glass box testing are clear logic-driven testing or path-driven testing or structural testing, or box testing, open box testing.

Types:

  1. Statement Coverage
  2. Decision Coverage

15. Differentiate between alpha testing and beta testing?

Alpha TestingBeta Testing
It is performed to identify bugs before it releases the product to real users or to the public.It is usually performed by real users of a software application in a real-time environment.
It  is performed by the Testers within the organization It is performed by the end-users.
It is performed at the Developer’s site.It is performed at the Client’s location.

16. Define Test coverage?

Test coverage can be defined as a technique that determines whether the test cases are actually covering the given application code and how much code has to be exercised when we run those test cases. Suppose there are 10 requirements and 100 tests are created, and if 90 tests are executed, then the test coverage is 90%.

17. In White-box testing, what has to be verified?

  1. White box testing has to verify the incomplete or broken paths in the code
  2. It has to verify the flow of structure according to the given document specifications.
  3. It has to verify the expected outputs.
  4. It needs to verify the security holes in the code
  5. It has to verify all conditional loops in the given code in order to check the complete functionality of an application.
  6. It has to verify line-by-line coding and cover 100% testing.

18. List the different levels of Manual testing?

Integration Testing – It is a software testing level where the individual units are combined, and they are tested to verify if they are working as they per the needs when integrated. The main goal here is to test an interface between the modules.

Unit Testing – It is a mechanism of testing the smallest piece of code (referred to as a unit) that is logically isolated in a system. It is focused on the functional correctness of a standalone module.

System Testing – In this type of testing, all components of the software are tested as a whole to ensure that the overall product will meet the requirements specified. There are various types of system testing; a few of them are usability testing, regression testing, and functional testing.

User Acceptance Testing – It is a final level, acceptance testing, or User Acceptance Testing, that determines whether the software is ready to get released.

19. Can we achieve 100% testing coverage? How to ensure it?

It is not possible to perform 100% testing of any product. But we can follow the steps to achieve it(closer to it):

  1. One can set a hard limit on the Percentage of test cases passed and the Number of bugs found.
  2. Set a red flag if a Test budget is depleted and Deadlines are breached.
  3. Set a green flag if the entire functionality covers in test cases and All critical bugs have a ‘CLOSED’ status.

20. Can you list the different black box testing techniques?

  1. Equivalence Partitioning
  2. Boundary value analysis
  3. Cause-effect graphing

Manual Testing Interview Questions

21. Define Testbed in Manual testing?

Testbed usually contains specific hardware, software, network configuration, the product under test, Operating system, other system software, and application software.

22. Can we do System Testing at any stage?

The answer is No. System testing has to start if all the modules are in place and they are working correctly. But, it has to be performed before the UAT (user acceptance testing).

23. Differentiate between static and dynamic testing?

Static TestingDynamic Testing
Static testing is about prevention.Dynamic testing is about the cure.
Static testing is more cost-effective.It is less cost-effective.
Static testing is usually done in the verification stage.Dynamic testing is done in the validation stage.

24. Can you explain the procedure for Manual Testing?

  1. You need to analyze the requirements from the software requirement specification document.
  2. Then, create a clear test plan.
  3. Then, write the test cases that will cover all the requirements that are defined in the document.
  4. Next, get your test cases reviewed by the QA lead.
  5. Execute the test cases and detect any bugs in any.
  6. Next, Report bugs,  and once they are fixed, run the failed tests again in order to re-verify the fixes.

25. List the different types of software testing?

  1. Unit testing
  2. White-box and Black-box testing
  3. Integration testing
  4. Regression testing
  5. Shakeout testing
  6. Smoke testing
  7. Functional testing
  8. Performance testing
  9. Alpha and Beta testing
  10. System testing

26. List the different Test levels?

  1. Unit/component/program/module testing
  2. Integration testing
  3. System testing
  4. Acceptance testing

27. What is a Test Case?

Test case

A Test Case in Software Testing can be defined as a set of actions that are executed in order to verify a given feature or functionality of the software application. A Test Case consists of test steps, preconditions, postconditions, test data that are developed for specific test scenarios to verify any requirement.

28. Differentiate between a test driver and a test stub?

Test DriverTest Stub
Drivers are mainly in Bottom-Up Integration Testing.Stubs are usually used in Top-Down Integration Testing.
Drivers are the “calling program.Stubs are known as “called programs,” is agile testing

29. What is Integration testing?

Integration testing is usually defined as the phase in software testing where the individual software modules are merged together and tested as a group. Integration testing is mainly conducted to evaluate the compliance of a component or system with specified functional requirements.

30. What is API testing?

API Testing can be defined as a software testing type that will validate (APIs)Application Programming Interfaces. The main purpose of API Testing is to check the reliability,  functionality, performance, and security of programming interfaces. It usually concentrates on the business logic layer of software architecture.

Manual Testing Interview Questions

31. Why is Agile testing important?

Agile testing will enable collaboration and consistent communications between the testing and development teams. As a result, complex issues are prevented. In addition to the strong team, the testing team can be a part of the production process instead of just entering prior to release.

32. Differentiate between User Acceptance Testing and System testing?

User Acceptance TestingSystem Testing
Here, we test whether the system is conforming to requirements or no.Here, we test the performance of the entire system.
This testing uses the actual real-time input values that are provided by the user.This testing uses demo input values that are selected by testing teams.

33. Define Data Flow Testing?

Data flow testing

Data flow testing is usually defined as a family of test strategies that are based on selecting paths through a program’s control flow to explore a sequence of events that are related to the status of variables or the data objects. Dataflow Testing mainly focuses on points where variables will receive values and points at which these values are used.

The test cases should have the following attributes:

  1. The input to the module
  2. The control flow path for testing
  3. A set of an appropriate variable definition and its use
  4. The expected outcome of test cases

34. Differentiate between Data-Driven Testing and Retesting?

Data-Driven TestingRetesting
In a data-driven testing mechanism, the application is tested with various test data. The application is usually tested with various sets of values.It is a mechanism of checking the bugs that are actioned by development teams to verify that they are fixed.

35. What is the intention of the end-to-end testing?

End-to-end testing can be defined as a technique that will test the whole software product, i.e., from beginning to end, to ensure that the application flow will behave as expected. It defines a product’s system dependencies and will ensure that all integrated pieces will work together as expected.

36. What are the steps to resolve issues/problems while testing?

  1. Record: It is a Log, and it can handle any problems that have happened.
  2. Report: It will report the issues to a higher-level manager.
  3. Control: It will define the issue management process.

37. Differentiate between a bug and a defect?

BugDefect
A bug can be defined as a fault in the software that is detected during testing time.A defect is usually defined as a variance between the expected results and the actual results that are detected by developers after the product goes live.

38. What steps are to be followed when a bug turns up during testing?

Steps:

  1. Report the problem as early as possible.
  2. Double cross-checks bug before reporting a bug.
  3. Check whether the same bug is occurring in some other related module.
  4. Write a good bug summary:
  5. Do not make use of any offensive language in the bug.
  6. Before you click Submit button, please review the bug report.

39. Differentiate between test scenarios, test cases, and test scripts?

A Test Scenario can be defined as any functionality that can be tested.

Test Cases: It can be defined as a document that will contain the steps that will be executed; it has been planned sooner.

Test Script: These are usually written in a programming language, and it is a short program that is used to test part of the functionality of the software system.

40. Can you list the advantages and disadvantages of manual testing?

Advantages:

  1. Manual testing of an application identifies the issues, such as including the look and feel issues of an application.
  2. Visual components such as layout, text, and other components are easily accessed by the tester, and UI and UX issues are detected.
  3. It has a low cost of operation as we don’t use the tools or high-level skills.
  4. It is suited for cases where we make some unplanned changed to an application because it is adaptable.
  5. Humans are allowed to observe, judge, and provide intuition in case of the manual test, and it is very useful when we are dealing with user-friendliness or rich customer experience.
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Disadvantages:

  1. Manual testing is time-consuming.
  2. It isn’t easy to find size differences and color combinations of GUI objects by using a manual test.
  3. Load testing and performance testing are impractical in manual tests.
  4. When there is a huge number of tests, manually running tests is a time-consuming job. 
  5. The Regression Test cases that are performed using manual tests are very time-consuming.

 Manual Testing Interview Questions

41. When to do Manual Testing?

We usually perform Manual Testing under these scenarios:

Adhoc testing: Adhoc testing, unplanned testing. It does not have any particular approaches defined, nor it has any documentation that is associated with it. Adhoc testing is informal, and the important factor to be considered here is the knowledge and insight of the tester. In such cases, manual testing is a good option. 

Usability testing: It is a scenario where we require manual testing; it is the case of usability testing. We usually perform this usability testing to assess how efficient, convenient, and user-friendly that the product has turned out to be for end-users. For this assessment, we usually require the highest manual intervention, and we cannot rely on the tools to assess it. So in order to evaluate the product from the end-user perspective, we generally opt for manual testing. 

Exploratory testing: We perform manual testing when the test documentation is poor, and we have a very short period of time for execution; in this kind of case, this exploratory testing will require creativity and analytical skills of the tester and the tester’s product knowledge. Whenever we perform exploratory testing, we will go for manual verification as we can’t use tools with little documentation and knowledge.

42. Can we test a program thoroughly?

Ther are the two principal reasons that can make it impossible to test a program thoroughly:

  1. Software specifications are made subjective, and they lead to different interpretations.
  2. A software program may require many inputs, path combinations, and outputs.

43. What is a Latent defect?

The latent defect can be defined as a defect that is not known to customers unless he/she faces an unforeseen situation and at the same time the developer or seller is aware of a defect.

44. What is the role of documentation in Manual Testing?

The Test documentation can be defined as a documentation of artifacts that are created before or during testing of software. It helps the testing teams to estimate the testing effort that is needed, test coverage, execution progress, resource tracking, etc.

45. How are you going to test a product if the requirements are yet to be frizzed?

If the required specifications aren’t available for a given product, then a test plan has to be created that is based on the assumptions that are made about the product. But one must get all assumptions well-documented in a test plan.

46. Can you list the two parameters that are useful to know the quality of test execution?

The parameters are:

  1. Defect reject ratio
  2. Defect leakage ratio

47. List the phases involved in Software Testing Life Cycle?

Phases:

Requirement Analysis: It is usually the first step involved in the Software testing life cycle. Here, in this step, (QA)Quality Assurance team has to understand the requirement like what we will testing & they have to figure out the testable requirements. During this phase, the test team will study the requirements from the testing perspective to identify the testable requirements.

The different types of requirements include:

  1. Business Requirements
  2. Architectural & Design Requirements
  3. System & Integration Requirements

Test Planning:  It is an important phase of the Software testing life cycle where all the testing strategies are defined here. This phase is also known as the Test Strategy phase. In this phase, the Test Manager is usually involved in determining the cost and effort estimates for the whole project. It will define the objective & scope of the project.

The commonly used Testing types are :

  1. Unit Test
  2. API Testing
  3. Integration Test
  4. System Test
  5. Install/Uninstall Testing
  6. Agile Testing

Test Case Development: This will begin once the test planning phase is done. This is a phase of the STLC where the testing team will note the detailed test cases. Along with the test cases, the testing team also prepares test data for testing. Once the test cases are prepared, these test cases are then reviewed by the QA lead.

Test Environment Setup: Setting up a test environment is a vital part of a Software Testing Life Cycle. A testing environment can be defined as a  setup of software and hardware for testing teams to execute their test cases. It will support test execution with software, hardware, and network configured.

Test Execution: The very next phase in the Software Testing Life Cycle is the Test Execution. Test execution is a mechanism of executing code and comparing the actual and expected results. When test execution begins, the test analysts will start executing test scripts that are based on the test strategy allowed in the project.

Test Cycle Closure: It is the final phase of a Software Testing Life Cycle. It involves calling testing team members meeting & evaluating the cycle completion criteria that is based on Test Coverage, Cost, Time, Critical Business Objectives, Quality, and Software. 

48. How to overcome challenges that are faced due to the unavailability of proper documentation for testing?

If the requirement document is unavailable, follow these steps:

  1. First, make sure you read the documents properly, referred by the developers, to develop the product and make sure you share the test cases with them. In this way, the tester will come to know how developers are developing software, and the testers can design the test cases based on it. 
  2. In case of ambiguity, make things clear as early as possible. Involve the teams, i.e., testers, client developers, and business analysts. Make sure after the meeting and all the teams are on the same understanding level so that you can proceed with the process.
  3. Make proper documentation of workflow. This helps in a better understanding of the approach. Use flowcharts and diagrams so that it is easy to understand.
  4. Make sure you prepare a list of In-Scope and Out-of-Scope items and share them with all the team members, and get approval from the respective manager. The tester can then update the list any time after the discussion with the team members.

49. Define phantom in Software Testing?

Phantom can be defined as freeware and is mostly used for windows GUI automation scripting language. It will allow us to take control of windows and its functions automatically. It will simulate any combination of keystrokes and mouse clicks and also menus, lists, and more.

 Manual Testing Interview Questions

50. Can you list down the key challenges of software testing?

Challenges:

  1. Testing the complete application
  2. Relationship with developers,
  3. Regression testing.
  4. We are always testing under time constraints.
  5. Which tests to execute first?
  6. Understanding the requirements
  7. The decision to stop the testing

51. Explain Test Deliverables?

Test Deliverables can be defined as the test artifacts that are given to the stakeholders of the software project during the Software Development Life Cycle(SDLC). These documents are also called Test Deliverables because they are delivered to the client along with the final product of the software application.

There are various test deliverables at every phase of a software development lifecycle

  1. Before Testing
  2. During Testing
  3. After the Testing

52. List the different types of Functional Testing?

  1. UAT
  2. Sanity testing
  3. Interface testing
  4. Integration testing
  5. System testing
  6. Regression testing
  7. Unit testing
  8. Smoke testing

53. What is Mutation Testing?

Mutation Testing can be defined as a type of software testing where certain statements of the source code are changed or mutated to check whether the test cases are able to find any errors in the source code. The main aim of Mutation Testing is to ensure the quality of test cases in terms of robustness that it must fail the mutated source code.

54. What are the good skills of a Test Engineer?

  1. Knowledge of test design techniques.
  2. Must know defect management process.
  3. Knowledge of the business domain.
  4. Must have experience in a variety of testing efforts.
  5. They should understand common software failures and faults.
  6. They should have knowledge of the system or application-under-test.
  7. They should understand the concept of the test automation process.

Manual Testing Interview Questions

55. Define Functional test cases and Non-Functional test cases?

Functional test cases are defined as what the QA managers write to assign testing for the functional requirements to others on the team. You think of a test case as a task. A functional test will assign the testing of a function or feature to see if it produces the expected result.

Non-Functional Testing can be defined as a type of Software testing that is used to check the non-functional aspects such as reliability, usability, performance, etc., of a software application. It is designed in such a way to test the readiness of a system as per the nonfunctional parameters that are never addressed by functional testing.

56. What are things one must consider before selecting Automation Tools for the AUT?

Points to be considered:

  1. Platforms, Technology, and Types  
  2. Tester Skills  
  3. Look for automated testing tools that will support record-and-playback test creation and manual creation options.
  4.  Change Management
  5. One should be able to see the results of the testing clearly. Dashboards, Logs, and other instrumentation that will automatically record and logs the report results will make managing the testing process smoother and effective from beginning to end.
  6. Collaboration   
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57. Define STLC?

Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) can be defined as a testing strategy that will help you to efficiently meet the software quality standards. STLC will enforce systematic testing that is performed in phases.

58. How to conduct Risk Analysis?

Steps to be followed:

  1. Find the score of the risk.
  2. Make a profile for the risk.
  3. Change the risk properties.
  4. Deploy the resources of the test risk.
  5. Make a database of risk.

59. Explain the Defect Life Cycle?

Manual Testing Interview Questions - Defect Lifecycle

In Software Testing, the Defect Life Cycle, also called Bug Life Cycle, can be defined as a specific set of states that a defect or bug goes through in its whole life. The main aim of the Defect life cycle is to coordinate and communicate the current status of the defect, which changes to different assignees and will make the defect fixing process efficient and systematic.

 Manual Testing Interview Questions

60. Define Severity and Priority?

Severity means “the degree of an impact that a defect will have on the development or operation of the component or the system.

Priority means “The level of business importance that is assigned to an item, e.g., defect.

61. List the categories of debugging?

Categories:

  1. Brute force debugging
  2. Backtracking
  3. Cause elimination
  4. Program Slicing
  5. Fault tree analysis

62. Define the Test Harness?

In terms of software testing, a test harness or automated test framework can be defined as a collection of software and test data that is configured in order to test a program unit by running it under various/different conditions and monitoring its outputs and behavior. It has two main parts, namely,

  1. The test execution engine
  2. The test script repository

63. Can you list the different types of severity?

  1. Control flow defects – High
  2. Load conditions – High
  3. User interface defects – Low
  4. Boundary related defects – Medium
  5. Error handling defects – Medium
  6. Calculation defects – High
  7. Misinterpreted data – High
  8. Hardware failures – High
  9. Compatibility issues – High

Manual Testing Interview Questions

64. What is Fault-masking?

Fault masking can be stated as “when the presence of one defect will hide the presence of another defect). Example: If the “Negative Value” causes a firing of unhandled system exceptions, the developer has to prevent the negative values input. This resolves the issue and will hide the defect of the unhandled exception firing.

65. Differentiate between Positive and Negative Testing?

Positive TestingNegative Testing
Positive testing is defined as checking the application responses with the help of valid input data.Negative testing can be defined as checking the application response by making use of the invalid input data set.
This testing does not guarantee a good quality of software product.This testing ensures to deliver a good quality of software product.
This testing does not encompass all the possible causes.This testing encompasses all the possible causes.

66. Define Defect Detection Percentage in Software Testing?

One of the metrics that will measure the quality of the company’s testing is Defect Detection Percentage. The formula is, tally the number of defects that are found during testing, then divided that number by the number of total defects.

67. What is a Critical bug?

A critical bug may not require any action at all, e.g., “Yeah – I totally derped. It is already fixed in a source, and it will be gone in the next build. 

68. Define Defect Removal Efficiency mean in software testing?

Defect Removal Efficiency usually relates to the ability to remove the defects that are introduced to a system by the project during the project life cycle.

69. What is the common risk that can lead to project failure?

  1. We are not having enough human resources.
  2. The testing environment may not be set properly.
  3. We may have a limited budget.
  4. Time constraints

70. Define pesticide paradox? How to overcome it?

In simple terms, the Pesticide paradox can be explained as “If the same tests are made repeated(i.e., over and over again), the same set of test cases will not find any new bugs. 

Methods to prevent pesticide paradox are given below:

  1. You can prepare new test cases and add them to an existing test case.
  2. You can write a whole new set of test cases to exercise various parts of the software.

 Manual Testing Interview Questions

71. Define the average age of a defect in software testing?

Defect age is usually defined as the time elapsed between the day the tester discovered the defect and the day the developer got it fixed.

72. What points should be considered while estimating your project?

  1. You need to divide the whole project into small tasks.
  2. Then, allocate each task to the team members.
  3. Now, estimate the effort that is required to complete each task.
  4. Finally, validate the estimation.

73. How to perform automated testing in the environment?

  1. First, you decide what Test Cases to Automate.
  2. Then, you need to select the Right Automated Testing Tool.
  3. Next, divide your Automated Testing Efforts.
  4. Next, Create Good, Quality Test Data.
  5. Then you need to create Automated Tests that are Resistant to Changes in the (User Interface)UI.

74. How to allocate a task to team members?

  1. Analyze software requirement specification( All team members).
  2. Then, Create the test specifications(Test analyst or Tester).
  3. Next, build up the test environment(Test Administrator).
  4. Execute the test cases(Testet/ Test Administrator).
  5. Finally, report the defects(Tester).

75. List some of the essential qualities that an experienced QA or Test Lead must have?

  1. They must provide ideas to refine QA processes.
  2. They should have excellent written and interpersonal communication skills.
  3. Ability to accelerate teamwork to increase productivity
  4. Ability to learn fast and groom the team members.

76. What are the things to be considered while monitoring your project?

  1. Are you over budget?
  2. Are we working towards the same career goal?
  3. Is the project on schedule
  4. Have we got enough resources?
  5. Are there warning signs of impending problems?
  6. Is there pressure from management to complete the project earlier?

77. Define Defect Cascading in Software Testing?

In terms of software testing, Defect Cascading means the triggering of other defects in an application whenever a defect is not identified or goes unnoticed while testing, it will invoke other defects, so multiple defects will crop up in the later stages.

78. What is a Silk Test?

Silk Test can be defined as a tool for regression testing and automated function of enterprise applications. It was developed by Segue Software which was then acquired by Borland in 2006. Silk Test Workbench will allow automation testing on a visual level as well as using VB.Net as a scripting language.

79. What does the term ‘quality’ mean when testing?

Quality in testing can be defined as the degree where a component, system, or process meets the given requirements and the customer’s needs and expectations. Software quality:  It is the totality of features and functionality of a software product that will bear on its ability to satisfy implied.

80. In what scenarios would you consider choosing automated testing over manual testing?

  1. Tests include repetitive steps
  2. Automation is expected to take less time
  3. Automation reports are available for every execution
  4. Automation is increasing reusability
  5. If the tests require periodic execution

 Manual Testing Interview Questions

81. Can you list the common mistakes while creating issues?

  1. Poor Scheduling
  2. Not following the process
  3. Not listening to others
  4. Matching resources to wrong projects.
  5. Ignoring the small problems
  6. Underestimating

82. Can you list the various techniques in White Box testing?

  1. Statement Coverage
  2. Decision Coverage
  3. Condition Coverage
  4. Multiple Condition Coverage

 83. List the key elements to be considered while writing a bug report?

  1. Defect Description:  It is a short description of the bug
  2. A unique ID
  3. Environment: You can add any system settings that will help in reproducing the issue.
  4. Screenshots
  5. Severity
  6. Steps to reproduce: It will include the detailed test steps in order to emulate the issue. It will also provide the test data and also the time when the error has taken place.

84. Define Experience-based testing techniques?

The experience-based testing technique is basically based on the experience and skill of the tester. Here the testers will use their experience with the same technology as enough time and inadequate specifications are not available to test an application. 

Manual Testing Interview Questions

85. Differentiate between bug leakage and bug release?

Bug LeakageBug Release
Bug leakage means “the bug is discovered by the customers or end-users and they are not detected by the testing team while testing software.”Bug release is when the software or the application is handed to the testing team knowing that the defect will be present in a release.

86. Differentiate between smoke testing and sanity testing?

Smoke TestingSanity Testing
Here, the tests are executed on the initial builds of a software product.Here, the tests are performed on builds that passed the smoke tests & rounds of regression test.
It is a subset of acceptance testing.It is a subset of regression testing.
They are executed by developers or testers.They are executed by testers.

87. Differentiate between performance testing and monkey testing?

Performance TestingMonkey Testing
Performance testing is used to check the speed, scalability, and stability characteristics of a system. Monkey testing can be defined as a  technique in software testing where the user will test the application by providing some random inputs to check the behavior of the application.

88. What is ‘Configuration Management’?

In Software Testing, Configuration Management can be defined as a mechanism of maintaining and establishing a product’s performance, physical and functional attributes with its requirements, functionalities, and design throughout its life. It will allow the Software Tester to manage their test outputs and testware using the same configuration management mechanisms.

89. Define System Testing?

System testing can be defined as the testing of the complete and fully integrated software product. This type of testing falls in black-box testing, where the knowledge of the inner design of a code is not considered a pre-requisite, and it is done by the testing team.

 Manual Testing Interview Questions

90. Can automation testing replace manual testing?

The test automation doesn’t have the ability to replace manual testing. We cannot assume test automation is stealing the job of the software testers out there, and you cannot expect the test automation to do all the work done manually by a tester.

91. What is a Test Management Review?

Test Management can be defined as a process of managing all the testing activities to ensure high quality and high-end testing of a software application. The method contains organizing,  ensuring traceability, controlling, and visibility of the testing process to deliver a high-quality software application.

92. When do we prepare RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix)?

RTM is usually prepared before the test execution process to ensure that every requirement is covered in the form of the Test cases so that we do not miss any testing. In this RTM document, we usually map all the requirements and respective test cases to make sure that the test cases are written to each condition.

93. List the best practices for software quality assurance?

  1. Tool Usage
  2. Metrics
  3. Experienced SQA auditors
  4. Continuous Improvement
  5. Documentation
  6. Responsibility by team members

94. Define the “Test Plan Driven” or “Key Word Driven” method of testing?

It is a  technique that uses the actual test case document that is developed by testers using a spreadsheet that contains special “key Words.” The keywords control the processing.

95. Differentiate between Test matrix and Traceability matrix?

Test MatrixTraceability Matrix
The test matrix is usually used to capture the actual quality, effort, plan, resources, and time required to capture all phases of the software testing.Traceability Matrix is nothing but the mapping between test cases and customer requirements.

96. Define DFD (Data Flow Diagram)?

Data flow diagrams are basically used to graphically represent a flow of data in the business information system. DFD will describe the processes involved in a system in order to transfer data from an input to a file storage and report generation.

97. Explain N+1 testing?

N+1 testing is a variation of Regression Testing. The Testing is conducted with multiple cycles where errors found in test cycle N are solved, and the solution is again retested in test cycle N+1. Here, the cycles are repeated until the solution reaches a steady state and there are more errors.

98. Explain LCSAJ?

LCSAJ means Linear Code Sequence and Jump, and it is a white box testing mechanism to identify code coverage, which will begin at the start of the program and ends at the end of a program. LCSAJ contains testing that is equivalent to statement coverage.

99. Explain the terms verification and validation in software testing?

Verification can be defined as the process of checking whether a software achieves its goal without any bugs. It is the technique that ensures whether the product developed is right or not.

Validation can be defined as the process of checking whether the designed software product is up to the mark or, in simple words does the product has high-level requirements.

100. Differentiate between Software Testing Life Cycle and Software Development Life Cycle?

STLCSDLC
It is a Testing Life CycleIt is a Development Life Cycle.
The objective of the STLC phase is testing/The object of the SDLC life cycle is to complete the successful development of the software, including testing and other phases.
Here, the test analyst will create the Integration Test Plan.Here, the development team will create high and low-level design plans.
Here, the testing team will prepare the test environment and executes them.Here, the real code will be developed, and the actual work will take place as per the design documents.

Good luck with your Manual Testing Interview, and we hope our Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers were of some help to you. You can also check our Java 8 Interview Questions and PHP Interview Questions which might be of some help to you.

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